Land management can be defined as the process of managing the use and development (in both urban and suburban settings) of land resources in a sustainable way. Land resources are used for a variety of purposes which interact and may compete with one another; therefore, it is desirable to plan and manage all uses in an integrated manner.
Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forest land use such as arable land, pasture, urban use, logged area, or wasteland. Generally, the removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity.
Ecosystem management is widely proposed in the popular and professional literature as the modern and preferred way of managing natural resources and ecosystems. Advocates glowingly describe ecosystem management as an approach that will protect the environment, maintain healthy ecosystems, preserve biological diversity, and ensure sustainable development.
Biological remediation of environmental problems using plants. The use of biological agents, such as bacteria or plants, to remove or neutralize contaminants, as in polluted soil or water. Includes phytoremediation, constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment, biodegradation, etc.
Air pollution is the degradation of air quality resulting from unwanted chemicals or other materials in the air. The condition of the air endangers the health, safety, or welfare of persons, interferes with normal enjoyment of life or property, endangers the health of animal life or causes damage to plant life or property.
Soil pollution is defined as the build-up in soils of persistent toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, radioactive materials, or disease causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health.
The introduction of substances that make water impure compared with undisturbed water. Usually this comes from soil erosion, introduction of poisonous chemicals from industries and spills and introduction of domestic sewage or industrial and agricultural wastes.
Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. The dominant form of noise pollution is from transportation sources.
Waste prevention, or “source reduction,” means consuming and throwing away less. For example; purchasing durable, long-lasting goods, seeking products and packaging that are as free of toxics as possible; redesigning products to use less raw material in production, have a longer life, or be used again after its original use. Reusing items — by repairing them, donating them to charity and community groups, or selling them — also reduces waste. Reusing products, when possible, is even better than recycling because the item does not need to be reprocessed before it can be used again. Recycling turns materials that would otherwise become waste into valuable resources. In addition, it generates a host of environmental, financial, and social benefits. Materials like glass, metal, plastics, and paper are collected, separated and sent to facilities that can process them into new materials or products.